The origin of comets

Our large article about the origin of comets has finally been published! I and my 47 co-authors from Rosetta’s OSIRIS team have made a thorough summary of what we have learned from the spacecraft’s exploration of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, combined with information from other spacecraft and observations of the outer solar system from ground, with the purpose of clarifying which of the previously proposed theories of comet formation that is closest to the truth, and what relation comets have to other types of bodies in the outer solar system. During that process we have realized that none of the earlier theories are fully satisfactory and we propose a new hybrid model that combines elements from earlier hypotheses in a unique manner.

The article has been published in the international scientific journal Astronomy & Astrophysics and can be downloaded here. The European Space Agency ESA, which led the construction of Rosetta and is responsible for the daily operations of the spacecraft and its orbital maneuvers, have also made a short popular summary of the article in their blog, where text and graphics have been produced in collaboration with me.

I will write several blog posts that describes various aspects of this paper. This is the first one which briefly describes earlier theories and our new scenario, step by step. Later posts will focus on different topics: what observations we used; why we consider certain theories inconsistent with those observations; why we were forced to introduce new concepts – and perhaps most important of all – what are the consequences of this new work regarding our understanding of early solar system history?

It has long been known that the interstellar medium, from which new stars and planetary system are made, contains a very large number of dust grains consisting of silicates, sulfides, metals, organic substances, and ice, whose diameters are less than a micrometer (i.e., one part in one thousand of a millimeter). It was also known that the newly formed protosun surrounded itself by a flattened and extensive disk of gas and dust known as the solar nebula, however, the processes that were responsible for transforming this smoke to a planetary system have been less understood. What is really going on when myriads of little grains merge to form large planets like Earth, or beasts like Jupiter? Over the years a number of theories have been proposed, where gravitational instabilities, hierarchical agglomeration (also known as hierarchical coagulation), and streaming instabilities played particularly important roles. They all aim at explaining how planetesimals are formed – small bodies with diameters ranging from a few hundred meters to a thousand kilometers that gradually merge into large planets.

Gravitational instability

This is the oldest model in modern times, that dominated our thinking in the 1960’s. According to this model a sedimentation process occurred in the solar nebula – the small dust grains gradually sunk towards the midplane. The gas disk was rather thick while the dust formed a thinner slab with an ever decreasing thickness. Because of this the density of the dust disk grew large over time, when all grains tried to fit within a comparably small volume. The reason why individual grains moved toward the midplane is the force of gravity emanating from all other grains. However, the dust disk cannot become arbitrarily thin and dense. Calculations of the strength and direction of the gravity field within the dust disk showed that it would break up into a large number of smaller isolated plates once a certain critical density was reached. It was this sudden breakup of the disk into smaller plates that constituted the instability. Under the influence of gravity the plates then collapsed to form spherical planetesimals with sizes of hundreds of kilometers. In this model gravity was therefore solely responsible for transforming the rocky smoke to a planetary system.

Hierarchical agglomeration

Toward the end of the 1970’s people started to question this type of gravitational instability. The solar nebula gas is denser and warmer close to the protosun, but thins out and gets colder at larger distances from it. For this reason a pressure forms in the gas that slightly counters the force of gravity. The result is that the gas disk orbits the protosun at somewhat lower velocity than what a planet at a corresponding distance would have done. We say that the gas has a sub-keplerian motion, while a planet has keplerian motion. However, the dust grains that accumulate in a thinner disk near the midplane does not feel this pressure, which is why the dust moves in a keplerian manner and also forces the gas in its immediate vicinity to do the same. For this reason a layer of dust and gas emerges near the midplane that moves around the protosun with a higher velocity than the gas under and above the midplane. The consequence is well known for those who have seen a wind blow over a calm lake – if the wind is weak nothing happens but if the wind velocity exceeds a critical value ripples form on the surface of the water. The ripples are examples of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability that arises when two media with different density has sufficiently fast relative shearing velocity. People realized that the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability near the midplane would make the gas there turbulent and that this turbulence prevented the dust disk from becoming sufficiently thin and dense for the gravitational instability to occur. Gravity was simply incapable of forming planetesimals because the turbulence was too strong. It was necessary to search for other mechanisms that did not rely on gravity.

It was realized that the so called van der Waals force could be the solution to the problem. Small dust grains that collide tend to stick together, due to a weak attractive force that arises between molecules in the grain surface layers when in physical contact. If grains merged to ever larger units then planetesimals would grow gradually without the assistance of gravity, at least initially. The process of grain sticking in collisions is called agglomeration and since large planetesimals are formed by mergers between smaller ones their structure forms a hierarchy – the model is therefore often referred to as hierarchical agglomeration.

This model dominated the thinking about planetesimal formation during the 1980’s and 1990’s. Very advanced computer codes were designed to figure out exactly how the hierarchical agglomeration behaved in the complex environment of the solar nebula, where turbulence, gas drag forces (similar to air resistance), material forces and gravity caused the piles of grains to collide, fragment, bounce, and merge on their winding road leading from the solar nebula to a planetary system. On ground, in space shuttles, and in space stations a large number of laboratory experiments were performed aimed at measuring the outcome of collisions between different types of grain clusters at different speeds, so that the computer codes could be fed with data with increasing quality and realism.

The theoretical studies of hierarchical agglomeration showed that the process was very promising – many computer simulations showed that it was possible to form planetesimals in this manner, and that they would have properties that resembled those observed for the asteroids in the belt between Mars and Jupiter, and seen among the large transneptunians in the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt beyond Neptune. However, the experiences were not exclusively positive. One problem was that the process was very slow: the cores of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune need to reach a certain size before the gas dissipates in the solar nebula when it reaches an age of about 3 million years – otherwise they do not have time to accrete the gas from the solar nebula that they largely consist of. Hierarchical agglomeration did not seem to manage, except during certain conditions. Some imagined that the solar nebula may have contained very large amounts of dust, so that the hierarchical agglomeration proceeded sufficiently fast. That means that a large number of planetesimals remain once the planets have formed – far too many compared to the observed number of asteroids and transneptunians. Possibly this problem could be solved if the planetesimals collided violently with each other at a later stage so that the excess was ground down to sand. This idea was reasonable since the planets gradually changes the orbits of the planetesimals in such a manner that their collisions become increasingly violent. Therefore, it was generally assumed that only the largest bodies in the asteroid belt and the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt had survived more or less intact since the early solar system, while most smaller bodies had formed gradually by the grinding process. Such collision cascades have been studied thoroughly to understand how they function.

Other problems are known as the drift barrier and the bouncing barrier. The drift barrier is a result of the drag forces that act when a small planetesimal try to move at keplerian velocity through the slower sub-keplerian gas and therefore feels a constant air resistance. These drag forces makes the planetesimal spiral toward the protosun. The speed during this sunward drift can reach very high values for bodies with sizes around a meter, while bodies that are either much smaller or substantially larger than this have a significantly slower drift speed. Under certain conditions the meter-sized bodies can drift so fast that the solar nebula quickly looses all its rock, that is completely engulfed by the protosun. The drift barrier means that planets cannot form at all since the construction material disappear completely from the solar nebula early on. Subsequent research has shown that the drift barrier may be breached if the small planetesimals are very porous. Early work on hierarchical agglomeration did not take porosity into account, which is why the drift barrier problem may have been exaggerated. Later laboratory experiment have shown that the mergers of grains at low velocity creates extremely porous bodies. If this is accounted for the drift barrier seems less problematic – there are paths to gradual growth that Nature may have treaded 4.6 billion years ago.

The bouncing barrier is a problem that was discovered during laboratory experiments with dust balls consisting of small silica grains. Those are sufficiently sticky (due to the van der Waals force) that micrometer-sized grains can merge to extremely porous pebbles with diameters ranging millimeters to centimeters. However, at that point the growth grinds to a halt. When the porous pebbles collide with each other they do not merge into larger bodies but just bounce. The planet formation stops at a very early stage if the bouncing barrier is a reality. However, also in this case there seems to be ways around the problem.

Computer simulations are often so extremely complex and time consuming that it is practically necessary to make simplifications to make any kind of progress. However, some of these simplifications may turn out to be fatal. For example, it has often been assumed that the collision between two pebbles (say one with 1 millimeter diameter and another with 2 millimeter diameter) always occur at a certain velocity that is regulated by the dynamics of the two pebbles as determined by the local gravity field and drag forces according to local turbulent conditions. But Nature is never that simple, and it is more likely that such collisions take place with different velocities according to some statistical probability – perhaps 60% of the collisions take place at 1 meter per second, but in 2% of the cases the speed is perhaps just 0.1 meter per second by chance. If one erroneously assume that all collisions are exactly at 1 meter per second – motivated by the majority of cases – this may lead to a bottleneck, or in the worst case, a dead end. But if one allows for a natural spread in collision velocities, it is possible that the unusually low velocities actually allows for a limited growth, that later leads to dramatic consequences for how the entire collective of grains, pebbles, and boulders behave – there is a way around the bottleneck and the planet formation process continues.

Another aspect is that laboratory experiments based on silica grains may be a very realistic analogue for material in the warm inner solar system, but not necessarily for the cold outer solar system. Beyond Jupiter’s orbit it is so cold that the rocky grains are covered by organic substances, ordinary crystalline water ice, and a type of structure in frozen water that only arise when it is formed at extremely low temperature – amorphous water ice. Organic substances and crystalline ice is much stickier than silica grains, and amorphous ice is stickier still. It is extremely difficult to make realistic laboratory experiments with such material. Only in recent years there have been published results from laboratory experiment were icy grains with the right dimensions where produced in a controlled way, and investigations of how their hierarchical growth differs from that of silica has begun. Experiments with organic species are also very few and as far as I know agglomeration experiments with amorphous ice have never been done. Preliminary results indicates that the bouncing barrier may not have existed in the cold region where comets were born.

For these reasons hierarchical agglomerations remains being a viable model, even though there is a healthy dose of skepticism in parts of the scientist community who doubt that agglomeration is the answer to all questions, everywhere. In hierarchical agglomeration is the the van der Waals force that primarily is responsible for turning the solar nebula dust into a planetary system.

Streaming instabilities

In 2005 a theoretical work was presented that showed that gas and pebbles possibly could collaborate in a previously unforeseen way, with the consequence that large dense swarms of pebbles formed in the solar nebula – as soon as such a swarm formed it grew rapidly thanks to the streaming instability. At some point the swarm became so large that its self-gravity managed to collapse the swarm into a large planetesimal. Ten years earlier it would have been impossible to test the theory in a large-scale computer simulation, but at this time the computers were sufficiently fast for such a test to be feasible. In 2007 the first successful test was presented, which was greeted with a lot of curiosity and enthusiasm by the science community – and with quite much relief. Finally a model that seemed to answer all questions, and that was not troubled by a lot of annoying barriers!

In this model hierarchical agglomeration is responsible of building pebbles with diameters ranging 1-10 centimeters. If the number of pebbles is sufficiently large compared to the amount of gas the streaming instability will form large swarms of pebbles, if not only the gas is allowed to modify the pebble’s dynamics, but the pebbles are allowed to change the gas motion as well – this mutual interaction is the key to the streaming instability. This process is very fast – forming a swarm sufficiently large to produce an asteroid as large as Ceres (an object with a 1000 kilometer diameter) takes about 10 revolutions around the protosun. That corresponds to about 50 years in the asteroid belt and about 3000 years in the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt. The gravitational collapse takes just 100 years. Considering that the solar nebula had an expected lifetime of about 3 million years, we understand that planetesimals form very fast. This solves one of the most difficult problems with hierarchical agglomeration – that process is too slow to build planet-sized bodies on a reasonable timescale.

Apart from the short planetesimal formation time this model is also characterized by another property – there is no hierarchical procedure where bodies are built gradually, but they jump directly from one centimeter to 100 or 1000 kilometers, depending on the size of the swarm. In this model van der Waals forces, gas drag, and gravity are all involved in planetesimal formation, but at different stages.

Earlier theories about the origin of comets

I have previously described what a comet nucleus is in a blog post. There has never been a single commonly accepted view on comet formation in the scientist community. Instead, a handful of theories have coexisted, each supported by a number of theoretical works and observations. It has not been possible to single out a specific model for the simple reason that there was not a sufficient amount of observations of real comets to be able to exclude all models except one, that remains the final winner. That is one of the reasons why humans build spacecraft that explore comets in situ. We need more information to advance our understanding of comets and their role in a larger context – the formation, evolution, and history of the outer solar system.

There are two main lines of thought that have dominated during the last decades:

  1. Comets are primitive bodies that formed in their current state 4.6 billion years ago, and they have not been modified much. They are called primordial rubble piles.
  1. Comets consist of material that originally were parts of larger bodies. When these bodies collided violently with each other a huge amount of rubble was formed. Gravity gathered some pebbles into a loosely bound aggregate. Such an aggregate is called a collisional rubble pile. Such collisions occurred in the early solar system and they still happen today. A given comet nucleus could therefore have formed either as recently as one million years ago, or 4.6 billion years ago.

The scientist that consider comets to be primordial rubble piles imagine at least two birth processes, depending on which planetesimal formation scenario they prefer.

1a) Some scientist claim that hierarchical agglomeration dominated planetesial formation. If they are correct the comets we see today are leftovers from that process – the comets consist of smaller planetesimals (usually called cometesimals) that merged at low velocity in the solar nebula. In that sense they are a pile of rubble. A 2 kilometer diameter comet primarily consists of cometesimals with sizes of a few hundred meters, that in turn are built by 10-meter cometesimals, and so on, down to the original small grains. Most of the kilometer-sized objects were consumed by large transneptunians during their growth. However, a few of them managed to avoid being eaten, and we see them today as comets.

1b) Other scientist thing that streaming instabilities mainly are responsible of forming comets. Since the comet is supposed to be primordial it is then necessary that the solar nebula had capacity to form some swarms sufficiently small to form objects with 1-10 kilometer diameter, that managed to go through a gravitational collapse. They are also primordial rubble piles, with the difference that the ”rubble” is dominated by objects with a diameter around a centimeter.

Regardless how the primordial rubble pile formed these scientist agree that the number of objects (small comets and large transneptunians) were so few that violent collisions were rare. Therefore, no collision fragments form that could mix with the primordial rubble piles. These scientist think that the amount of mass in the solar nebula was rather small and the environment was dynamically cold, which means that bodies rarely collide at high speed.

Not all scientist support this view – they refer to other observations or theoretical difficulties that suggest that the solar nebula was massive and dynamically hot. In such an environment comet are inevitably collision rubble piles. However, these scientists do not agree on what took place before the violent collisions.

2a) Some scientist think that hierarchical agglomeration was responsible of building the large transneptunians (like Pluto and Eris). They were the largest objects in a population were all sizes were represented, from the 2300 kilometers of Pluto and Eris, down to objects just being a few hundred kilometers in size. They think that most transneptunians with sizes above 100 kilometers are primordial bodies that have survived since solar system childhood, while bodies in the 50-100 kilometer range have collided efficiently with each other and that the majority of the present small bodies – including comets – are collisional rubble piles. In other words, there has been an efficient collisional cascade. Although some comets may be primordial rubble piles, they are completely outnumbered by collisional rubble piles.

2b) Other scientist think that the first generation planetesimals all were 100-1000 km-class objects, formed through streaming instabilities. Therefore all small objects, including comets with typical diameters of 1-10 kilometers must be collisional rubble piles, formed in a collisional cascade.

It is difficult to tell which of these alternatives that may be considered most popular today. There are no popularity votes or polls among scientists. However, the opinions of individual scientists on a controversial topic does not matter much, not even the opinions among a certain generation of scientists. After all, there is a single objective historical truth – Nature chose a specific route and comets have formed in a specific way. Beliefs and opinions are meaningless – our task is to recover the truth that always been out there. We know by experience that time corrects all mistakes. One hundred years ago, in 1916, Albert Einstein had just published his general theory of relativity and it was motivated to have opinions about the correctness of the theory. There was room for opinions since there were few measurements that could prove or disprove the theory. But during these one hundred years a large number of measurements have been performed in earthly observatories and in space, and it has been possible to make observations of extreme astrophysical object that their behavior has been documented in detail. The technology that made these experiments and observations possible did not exist in 1916. They were developed over time, and over and over Einstein was proven right. Nowadays no serious scientist doubt that Einstein’s general theory of relatively tells us something profound about the properties of Nature, and no-one questions its capability of quantitatively reproducing observed phenomenon with extremely high precision. The doubters of 1916 have been silenced by history. In the same way astronomers 100 years form now – after a number of spacecraft missions to comets that are similar or superior to Rosetta – will look back at the controversies among the scientists of our time with (as always is the case in retrospect) with a faint smile on their lips because they cannot understand how we could be so primitive and childish in our opinions.

Nevertheless, if one tries to select a dominating line of thought, that primarily has reached its status based on the theoretical works that often constitutes the basis of our world view in the absence of concrete observational evidence, I’d say it would be 2b – that comet nuclei are collisional rubble piles and that their parent bodies formed through streaming instabilities. The first reason is that streaming instabilities currently probably should be considered being a more popular scenario than hierarchical agglomeration. Streaming instabilities is an elegant way of avoiding several of the perceived or real bottlenecks and the slowlyness for which the hierarchical agglomeration often has been criticized. The second reason is that the Nice model is very popular today. It states that the giant planets formed rather close to the Sun and that the outer solar system was dominated by a large number of planetesimals gathered in a structure called the primordial disk. The giant planets acquired their current orbits by strong mutual gravitational perturbations that spread the primordial disk planetesimals all over the solar system – some bombarded the Moon (an may explain the presence of the large and comparatively lately formed dark spots that can be seen by the naked eye), others formed the Trojan swarms that share Jupiter’s orbit or were captured as giant planet satellites (which explains the strange orbits for some of these satellites), while yet others formed the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt (which explains its strange structure in detail). The Nice model, in its basic form, hypothesize that the number of planetesimals in the primordial disk was very large – it would be possible to build 35 earths out of that material. With so much mass in an environment that additionally considered to be dynamically hot a collisional cascade is unavoidable.

This is the reason that we chose to use 2b in the ESA press release (see Figure 1) as a representative of ”earlier” comet theories.

Figure 1: The left column of images shows how we often have imagined comet formation before Rosetta. Hierarchical agglomeration first builds pebbles with sizes around a centimeter. Streaming instabilities in the solar nebula then form gigantic swarms of pebbles that merge through gravity to large transneptunians with typical diameters in the range 100-400 kilometers. These then collide with each other – to begin with rather gently so that some of them merge to objects as large as Pluto (2300 km) or the Neptune satellite Triton (2700km) that was captured from the primordial disk. However, collision velocities increase over time and cease to be constructive (in which two smaller objects merge into a large one) and start to become destructive (two smaller objects pulverize each other). In some cases the collision fragments are joined into loosely bound lumps – many scientists see comets as such collision rubble piles. Our new scenario is seen to the right, with one column for large transneptunians and another for small comets. In our opinion the transneptunians form first through streaming instabilities. Remaining material then grows through hierarchical agglomeration to form comets. The growth rate of the comets is so slow that they have time to dissipate the heat generated internally by radioactive decay – therefore they remain very cold and porous. Due to their slow growth much of it takes place after the solar nebula gas has dissipated. In our opinion this gives comets some unique properties – their outer parts are dominated by concentric shells, and they often merge two by two. If comets form in this manner we demonstrate that they are so few in number that they do not collide violently with each other at later times. Comet nuclei are therefore surviving primordial rubble piles that are 4.6 billion years old.

Figure 1: The left column of images shows how we often have imagined comet formation before Rosetta. Hierarchical agglomeration first builds pebbles with sizes around a centimeter. Streaming instabilities in the solar nebula then form gigantic swarms of pebbles that merge through gravity to large transneptunians with typical diameters in the range 100-400 kilometers. These then collide with each other – to begin with rather gently so that some of them merge to objects as large as Pluto (2300 km) or the Neptune satellite Triton (2700km) that was captured from the primordial disk. However, collision velocities increase over time and cease to be constructive (in which two smaller objects merge into a large one) and start to become destructive (two smaller objects pulverize each other). In some cases the collision fragments are joined into loosely bound lumps – many scientists see comets as such collision rubble piles. Our new scenario is seen to the right, with one column for large transneptunians and another for small comets. In our opinion the transneptunians form first through streaming instabilities. Remaining material then grows through hierarchical agglomeration to form comets. The growth rate of the comets is so slow that they have time to dissipate the heat generated internally by radioactive decay – therefore they remain very cold and porous. Due to their slow growth much of it takes place after the solar nebula gas has dissipated. In our opinion this gives comets some unique properties – their outer parts are dominated by concentric shells, and they often merge two by two. If comets form in this manner we demonstrate that they are so few in number that they do not collide violently with each other at later times. Comet nuclei are therefore surviving primordial rubble piles that are 4.6 billion years old.

 

Our new model of comet origins

In our scenario we assume that the primordial disk had a substantially lower mass than in the nominal version of the Nice model. We start off with the lowest mass – about 15 Earth masses – that still is consistent with the overall properties of the Nice model. Therefore, we do not reject the Nice model, but we feel forced to revise the assumption regarding the amount of mass. The reason for this is that we need to avoid an collisional cascade, since we think that the observations by Rosetta excludes that such a process took place. In our opinion 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is a primordial rubble pile.

We demonstrate that the solar nebula initially had such properties that streaming instabilities should have been active. We therefore think that large transneptunians formed very early and we have reasons to claim that their diameters typically were in the range 50-400 kilometers. Since pebbles continuously are consumed in order to build large planetesimals they eventually become too few, compared to the amount of gas, for streaming instabilities to form new pebble swarms. We estimate that this happens when about 13 earth masses have been consumed.

At that point, about 2 earth masses remain in the form of centimeter-sized pebbles. The question is – what happens to those? We claim that this remaining material eventually form comet nuclei. We think that these pebbles start merging to increasingly large units, that is to say, a hierarchical agglomeration process takes place. As previously mentioned, this is a very slow form of growth. In our case it is even slower than in previous works since we start out with an unusually small amount of dust, furthermore, it is only a small fraction of this dust that grows through hierarchical agglomeration. The extremely slow growth is a problem if one want to form planets – but if one wants to form comets it is a necessity.

The thing is that the small pebbles contained a radioactive element called aluminum-26. When this radioactive substance decays heat is being generated. The large transneptunians will therefore experience strong heating and suffer structural, chemical, and mineralogical changes that we think can be seen among those bodies today. However, the comets must be kept extremely cold at all times since only extreme cold can explain why they still are so rich in very volatiles species, and how they managed to maintain an extremely high porosity.

It is much easier for small bodies to dissipate the heat produced (it escapes to space as infrared radiation), than for large bodies. It is therefore good that these cometesimals grew very slowly, since that gives them the chance to cool off.

We estimate that the cometesimals only had reached diameters between 100 meters and 1 kilometer when the solar system reached an age of 3 million years. A few bodies had grown as large as 5-6 kilometers. When the gas in the solar nebula started to dissipate, most comets had therefore not yet grown to their full final size.

The cometesimals that formed in this manner are extremely porous. They have systematically been built by the merger of smaller objects into bigger ones. Meetings between similarly-sized objects were very rare. Instead, meetings between a comparatively large body and a much smaller one have dominated. That affects the shape of the growing objects – they do not look like 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at this stage, that consists of two large lumps (lobes) that attached to each other. These cometesimals are much more spherical, and look more like the individual lobes.

When the gas goes away the conditions for continued growth change completely. The presence of large transneptunians and the absence of drag forces gives rise to a phenomenon called ”viscous stirring”. The practical consequence is that cometesimals now collide with each other at ever increasing velocity (it increases from 0.1 meter per second to tens of meters per second). The rate of change is very slow, but it changes the appearance of the cometesimals.

The somewhat more violent collisions lead to the formation of a shell around the extremely porous cores, that are somewhat less porous. Layer upon layer of compressed material create a stratified outer shell on the cometesimals that resembles the layers in an onion. Another consequence of the viscous stirring is that cometesimals of similar size for the first time collide frequently in space. It is in these type of collisions that objects similar to 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko have formed. The collisions take place at sufficiently low velocity that the lobes do not destroy each other, they just gently attach.

We calculate in detail how the viscous stirring changes the collision velocities over time and estimate the number of large transneptunians and comets that collide within their groups and with each other at any given moment. Therefore, we can estimate how the number of objects and their sizes evolve over time. Previous work has shown that the primordial disk existed for about 400 million years. We show that about 350 transneptunians manage to grow to the size of Triton (2700 km) in this time. We also show that the growth phase of comets primarily is over once 20-25 million years have passed. The largest comet-sized objects have diameters of at least 50 kilometers, thus we claim that large comets like Hale-Bopp reached their full size when the solar system was about 25 million years old.

Due to low-velocity mergers and collisions with transneptunians that number of comet nuclei had been heavily reduced at this time. The fact is that they are so few that they do not manage to collide with each other when the viscous stirring has created such high relative velocities that collisions would have been destructive, if they occurred. This is good, because the primordial rubble piles therefore can survive throughout the solar system lifetime so that we can see them as comets.

When 400 million years have passed the giant planets will enter into the primordial disk and destroy it. We calculate in detail how many comets and large transneptunians that are places into the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt and into another population further from the sun called the scattered disk. The scattered disk is considered being the source region of the comets that currently manage to find their way into the inner solar system so that we can see them (67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is one of those).

There are several new things in our scenario. The primordial disk has an unusually small mass and is dynamically cold. We have completely separated the comets from the large transneptunians – the comets are not the precursors of transneptunians (as in classical hierarchical agglomeration) and the transneptunians are not the parents of comets (as in a collisional cascade). Instead we view the large transneptunians and the comets as two entirely different populations that formed out of the same building blocks (the centimeter-sized pebbles) but that evolve in different directions due to two completely different processes – in the case of transneptunians through streaming instabilities and in the case of comets through hierarchical agglomeration. It’s not a matter of ”either one or the other” – we believe in a hybrid where both mechanisms are active simultaneously.

Another novelty is that the number of comets may be much smaller than previously thought. Our model has about 100 times fewer comets in the primordial disk compared with previous estimates – we claim there were ”only” about three billion comets with diameters above 2 kilometers. The earlier estimates are based on the number of currently observed comets, combined with a large number of assumptions that lead backward from the inner solar system to the scattered disk, then backward to the days of the primordial disk. Although these estimates have been done ”by the book” we are not fully convinced of their correctness. If our estimate of a substantially lower number of comets is correct, it is easier to understand certain observational studies of the scattered disk, as well as the number of craters on the Moon.

If we are right it also means that rather few comets hit Earth in its childhood. They may have brought less water and organics to our planet than previously assumed. This does not necessarily mean that we need to exclude that comets played a part in the emergence of life on Earth – but we may have to think more in terms of quality rather than quantity.

More about that another time!

Literature

Davidsson, B. J. R., H. Sierks, C. Güttler, F. Marzari, M. Pajola, H. Rickman, M. F. A’Hearn, A.-T. Auger, M. R. El-Maarry, S. Fornasier, P. J. Gutiérrez, H. U. Keller, M. Massironi, C. Snodgrass, J.-B. Vincent, C. Barbieri, P. L. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, M. A. Barucci, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, C. Feller, M. Fulle, O. Groussin, S. F. Hviid, S. Höfner, W.-H. Ip, L. Jorda, J. Knollenberg, G. Kovacs, J.-R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, F. La Forgia, L. M. Lara, M. Lazzarin, J. J. Lopez Moreno, R. Moissl-Fraund, S. Mottola, G. Naletto, N. Oklay, N. Thomas, and C. Tubiana (2016). The primordial nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 592, A63.

What is a comet?

Now and then, a bright comet appears in the sky. It develops a fuzzy head and a long tail while it slowly drifts through the constellations. Such a sight has always fascinated humanity and given rise to stories, myths and superstition. It has also inspired scientists to investigate the nature of comets, and it turns out that they are not only beautiful to watch, but they can also reveal important secrets about the early history of the Solar System.

Comets are among the oldest and least altered bodies that revolve around the Sun, and therefore they constitute a unique source of knowledge about the origin of the Solar System and its early evolution. They constitute left-overs of the material that built the giant planets and their satellites. If one seeks to understand the earliest phase of the planet formation process, and the chemical and physical properties of the environment in which the giant planets formed, one must study comets. We also know that comets bombarded the young Earth and that a substantial fraction of the water we drink every day once were part of comet nuclei that circled the Sun outside the orbit of Neptune. We know that comets are rich in organic species, and that these may have been necessary for the emergence of life on Earth. We also know that comets impact Earth on rare occasions, which has led to local or global changes to the environment during shorter or longer periods, which has forced the ecosystems to adapt. These impacts are therefore parts of our own evolutional-biological history.

Below I will describe the physical and chemical properties of the comet nucleus, the characteristics of the orbits of visible comets and how comets are transported from such relatively nearby orbits from more distant parts of the Solar System. Then I will describe the components of the active comet, i.e., the properties of the coma and the tail. Finally, I will describe the reasons why comets are important from a scientific point of view.

The comet nucleus

The impressive head and tail of a comet originates from a small solid body called the nucleus. A typical comet nucleus is less than 10 kilometers in diameter and is darker than charcoal, since the nucleus only reflects 2-4% of the incoming sunlight. The comet nucleus has a very irregular shape and displays a variety of detail on its surface – highly irregular terrain mixed with smooth surface, valleys, mountains, ridges, hills and craters. The comet nucleus is extremely porous and a large fraction of its volume (60% or more) is just empty space. This makes comets very fragile, and dozens of comets have been seen to split or pulverize. The high porosity and the low strength is due to the fact that the nucleus is made up of weakly bound grains, that typically are a micrometer across (i.e., one part of a thousand of a millimeter).

Halley

The nucleus of Comet 1P/Halley photographed by the European Space Agency (ESA) spacecraft Giotto in 1986.
Copyright: ESA/MPAE, 1986, 1996
Original image: http://www.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2002/01
/A_composite_image_of_the_nucleus_of_comet_P_Halley

The grains are primarily consisting of four different types of material. About a third of the mass is silicates and sulfides, another third is organic species, while the rest are volatile species. I will now describe these in some detail.


Silicates constitute a large family of minerals that are rich in silicon, oxygen and various metals, and is the stuff that rock primarily is made of. About half of the comet silicates is olivine, which consists of two metal atoms, one silicon atom and four oxygen atoms. If the two metal atoms are magnesium, we have an olivine called forsterite. If the two metal atoms instead are iron, we have another olivine called fayalite. Comets seem to be rich in forsterite and contain less fayalite. The Earth mantle is made of different types of rocks that are very rich in olivine.
The other half of the comet silicates is pyroxene, that consists of a metal atom, a silicon atom and three oxygen atoms. If the metal atom is magnesium, we have a pyroxene called enstatite, but if the metal is in the form of iron we have ferrosilite. Comets seem to be richer in enstatite than ferrosilite, so on average the comet silicates are magnesium-rich. Pyroxene is an important component in the basalt that makes up most of Earth’s ocean floors.

Sulfides are chemical species consisting of sulfur mixed with iron and nickel. Troilite is the most simple member among the sulfides. It consists of an iron atom and a sulfur atom and is very common in comets. The most complex sulfide found so far in comet material is pentlandite that contains eight sulfur atoms and a total of nine metal atoms that are a mixture of iron and nickel. On Earth, large amounts of sulfur and iron are found in molten form in the outer core.

We now consider the organic species, that all have one thing in common – they contain carbon. Carbon is the most important element in the periodic table since it readily binds to other atoms, which means that carbon can form an extreme variety of molecules. It is this diversity that makes organic molecules suitable as building-blocks of life. The living organism needs a large “tool box” of molecules to solve all sorts of tasks, and only the family of organic species is large enough to provide a sufficiently rich variety.

An example of organic species found in comets are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or PAHs. The most simple PAH, benzene, has six carbon atoms that form a ring, to which six hydrogen atoms are connected. By joining such rings, other PAHs can be formed, such as naphthalene (two rings), phenanthrene (three rings) and pyrene (four rings). All these PAHs have been found in comet material. On Earth, PAHs form during incomplete combustion of carbon-rich material, e.g., when wood is burning. The fact is that naphthalene is extracted from charcoal (this molecule happens to be the active substance in mothballs). Other environments where PAHs are formed are burning cigarettes, car exhaust fumes, and in the frying pan. Comets also contain other forms of organic species, e.g. glycine, the most simple amino acid. Living organisms use amino acids to manufacture proteins, i.e., macro-molecules that perform all sorts of tasks in the cell. To find such pre-biotic molecules in interplanetary space is extremely fascinating.

However, it is the large amount of volatile species that make comets special. Volatile species are basically substances that are liquid or gaseous at room temperature, but that turn solid at the low temperatures found in interplanetary space, i.e., they have turned into ice. Water is the most common volatile in a comet, while carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide come in second and third. Methanol, hydrogen sulfide, formic acid, methane, ammonia and hydrogen cyanide have concentrations of about a percent each relative to water. Methanol is the most simple alcohol, while it is hydrogen sulfide that give rotten eggs their unpleasant smell. Formic acid is used as a disinfectant and during industrial production of plastic, while methane (on Earth) is formed during putrefaction, i.e., when bacteria decompose organic material. Ammonia gives window polish its strong and irritating smell, while hydrogen cyanide is a deadly poison. This rich chemistry has formed in the Solar Nebula, the cloud of gas and dust that surrounded the young Sun, from which the planets formed.

The comet orbits

Objects that are gravitationally bound to the Sun move along trajectories shaped as ellipses. The degree of flattening of the ellipse, or the eccentricity, is very small for the planets (their orbits are almost circular), but is generally large for the comets. The Sun is not located at the center of the ellipse, but in one of the two focal points of the ellipse. These are located on either side of the center, on the the largest of the diameters of the ellipse (the major axis), at distances from the center that are determined by the eccentricity. For this reason, the distance between the Sun and a comet may vary significantly during a revolution, which is not the case for the planets. The point in the orbit where the comet is closest to the Sun is called the perihelion, while the most distant point is called the aphelion. The orbital planes of the planets more or less coincide with a plane called the ecliptic. However, comet orbits can tilt significantly with respect to the ecliptic – they are said to have high inclination.

ellipse

Comets move along elliptical paths around the Sun. The ellipse has two focus points, f1 and f2. The shape of the ellipse is determined by the fact that the distance l1 from the focus f1 to the ellipse, plus the distance l2 from the focus f2 to the ellipse, remains constant for all points on the ellipse. The Sun is here located in f1, while the comet is located at the point P. The smallest distance between the comet and the Sun (q) is called the perihelion, while the longest distance (Q) is called the aphelion.

Visible comets are comets that have orbits that bring the sufficiently close to the Sun and the Earth for us to be able to see them. Visible comets are grouped into a number of families based on the properties of their orbits. Jupiter-family comets have orbital periods shorter than 20 years and move in orbits around the Sun that are near the ecliptic plane. They regularly pass in the vicinity of Jupiter’s orbit. When passing close to Jupiter, they may be subjected to strong gravitational perturbations that may change the perihelion distance, the eccentricity and the inclination. It is these perturbations from Jupiter that have given the group its name.


We also have Halley-type comets that differ from the Jupiter-family comets by having longer orbital periods (up to 200 years), and often significantly higher inclinations. Comet 1P/Halley itself has such a high inclination that the orbit has “flipped over” so that the comet moves clockwise around the Sun (as seen from a point high above Earth’s north pole), while all planets, asteroids and most comets move counter-clockwise.

New comets are barely gravitationally bound to the Sun, and approach the Sun from large distances along an orbit shaped as a parabola. If the comet manages to cross the inner Solar System without suffering a perturbation of a planet, it will continue to move along its parabolic orbit and leaves the Solar System for good, never to return. However, it is not unusual that smaller perturbations take place that transforms the orbit into an extremely eccentric ellipse. This is a long period comet, with an orbital period that could be thousands of years.

How come there are so many different types of comet orbits? Why do some comets belong to the Jupiter family while others are Halley-type comets or new comets? These populations arise for two reasons – there are different reservoirs of comets at very large distance from the Sun, and there are different mechanisms that transport comets from these distant reservoirs to orbits close enough to Earth so that we can see them. There are several large reservoirs of comets that constantly feed objects into the inner part of the Solar System – the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt, the scattered disk, and the Oort cloud.


Distant reservoirs

The Edgeworth-Kuiper belt is a population of icy bodies located beyond the orbit of Neptune. The largest known member is called Eris. The second largest, and the first to be discovered, is Pluto. Both Eris and Pluto are dwarf planets, a category that was introduced in 2006 to distinguish between the largest of the Solar System bodies (the planets), the smallest bodies (asteroids, comets and meteoroids), and intermediate-sized bodies (dwarf planets).

Currently, about 1,200 objects in the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt are known, that all have been discovered after 1992, except Pluto that was found already in 1930. The Edgeworth-Kuiper belt has an inner edge that coincides with the 3:2 mean motion resonance with Neptune, which means that these objects move twice around the Sun in the same time as Neptune completes three revolutions. This corresponds to a distance of 39 AU (one AU, or Astronomical Unit, is the average distance between Sun and Earth, or roughly 150 million kilometers). This can be compared to the outermost planet Neptune, located 30 AU from the Sun. The outer edge is located at the 2:1 mean motion resonance with Neptune, which means that objects near this edge orbit the Sun once during the time it takes Neptune to complete two revolutions. This corresponds to a distance of roughly 48 AU.

Beyond the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt we find the scattered disk. It consists of objects that have had their originally circular orbits strongly perturbed by Neptune. They are characterized by large eccentricities and often have substantial inclinations. The perihelion distances typically fall between 30-40 AU, i.e., between the orbit of Neptune and the inner edge of the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt. The aphelion distances can be larger than 80 AU from the Sun.

However, these distances are very modest compared to that of the largest reservoir of comets in the Solar System – the Oort cloud. The comets in the Oort cloud have more or less circular orbits located 10,000-50,000 AU from the Sun. At such distances the gravitational attraction of the Sun is rather weak, and galactic tides start to become comparable to the pull of the Sun. The galactic tide is essentially the combined gravitational force of the stars and molecular clouds scattered throughout the disk of our galaxy, the Milky Way. The gravitational attraction from individual stars that temporarily come close to the Sun may also become comparable to that of the Sun. Due to such perturbations, the orbital planes of the comets have obtained random tilts, so that a given comet may have any possible inclination. Therefore, the comets in the Oort cloud are spread within a more or less spherical envelope at very large distances from the Sun.

Transport routes

The comets in the Jupiter family, and most Halley-type comets, are believed to originate from the scattered disk or the outer parts of the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt, but they have taken very different routs to reach their current orbits.

Computer simulations of the dynamics of comets show that comets in the Jupiter family slowly are dragged into the inner parts of the Solar System from the scattered disk or the outer parts of the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt, due to the influence of the gas giants. This process normally starts when Neptune changes the orbit of a distant object in such a way that it starts to feel the gravitational force of Uranus at the inner parts of its orbit. Thereafter, Uranus is modifying the orbit further, and is passing on the object towards Saturn. Finally, Saturn directs the object towards Jupiter, which subsequently creates the typical orbit of a Jupiter family comet. This is a very slow process that may take hundreds of thousand or millions of years to complete. The fact is that we can observe objects that are in the midst of this transport route. They are called Centaurs and orbit the Sun at distances that typically fall between the orbits of Saturn and Neptune. Some Centaurs even display comet activity in spite of their large distance to the Sun, like the comets 95P/Chiron and 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. Both objects are unusually large for being comets (Chiron has a diameter of about 200 kilometers), which is why we can see them over such large distances. This means that the inner Solar System has been visited by extremely large and bright comets during its long history.

Halley-type comets follow a completely different orbital evolution. Typically, Neptune starts to change the orbit of an object in the scattered disk or the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt in such a way that the aphelion distance increases dramatically, while the perihelion distance remains at about 30-40 AU from the Sun. Eventually, such objects can be 10,000 AU from the Sun at aphelion, where they are exposed to the galactic tide and the gravitational force of nearby stars. These forces may change the inclination of the orbit, but may also decrease the perihelion distance. This means that the comet periodically approaches much closer to the Sun than previously, and it may cross the orbits of Jupiter or Saturn. If this happens, these gas giants may change the orbit further by bringing the aphelion point back to the planetary region, while the perihelion distance remains roughly the same. In such a way, another Halley-type comet has been created.

However, it is not only the scattered disk and the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt that provides comets to the inner Solar System. Galactic tides and the gravity of nearby stars can perturb the orbits of comets in the Oort cloud, so that they start to fall towards the inner parts of the Solar System on parabolic orbits. Eventually, when they reach our part of space, we see them as new comets. If a new comet is unaffected by the planets it will simply return to interstellar space, and it is very likely that it never will come back again. However, a small disturbance from Jupiter may slow the comet down a bit, which forces it to return repeatedly although one need to wait for hundreds or thousands of years between each return – the comet has become long-periodic. Some long period comets can be transformed to Halley-type comets over time, which means that some of these object originally may have come from the Oort cloud.

The active comet

When a comet nucleus is far from the Sun (about three times as distant from the Sun as Earth), the temperature is too low for the frozen volatiles to sublimate at a high rate. The comet nucleus is then said to be inactive, and it can only be seen with the largest telescope if visible at all. If the comet instead approaches sufficiently close to the Sun it starts to heat up and the frozen species are vaporized – we say that the comet has become active. Solid grains of silicates, sulfides and organic species are liberated from the surrounding ice and are dragged along with the outwelling gas that rushes out into space. A dusty gas cloud is formed around the comet nucleus which is called a coma. A coma can have a diameter of 100,000 kilometers, which is ten times larger than Earth. The coma contains large-scale structures like jets since the nucleus outgassing is not evenly distributed across the surface of the nucleus. The coma is sufficiently thick to hide the nucleus from view. If we also remember that the inactive nucleus is distant and faint, it means that comet nuclei rarely can be observed at all, except from flyby spacecraft.

The solid grains soon lose contact with the gas, and their future orbits in space are only determined by two factors – the solar gravity and the solar radiation pressure. If solar gravity alone would influence the grains, they would follow trajectories around the Sun that resemble the orbit of the nucleus itself. However, when the radiation pressure is added, it means that the grains are pushed further away from the Sun compared to the nucleus, which means that they are smeared into a curved structure called the dust tail. This tail can be seen from the Earth due to the sunlight reflected by the grains. Color photographs shows that the dust tail has a yellow or white color, i.e., the same color as the Sun.

Hale_Bopp

Comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp). The yellow-white comet dust tail consists of small dust grains that reflect the solar light. The blue plasma tail consists partially of ionized carbon monoxide that absorbs and re-emit the blue light of the Sun.
Copyright: E. Kolmhofer, H. Raab; Johannes-Kepler-Observatory, Linz, Austria
Original image: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Comet_Hale-Bopp_1995O1.jpg


The gas molecules in the coma have arrived to a very hostile environment. No longer protected in the nucleus interior, they are exposed to hard ultraviolet radiation from the Sun that literally smash them to pieces. Molecules and their fragments (radicals and atoms) are also ionized by the solar light, which means that they loose one or several electrons. This process make them electrically charged, which means that they start to interact with the solar wind. The solar wind consists of fast electrically charged particles that emanates from the Sun and drags along the solar magnetic field. The ions from the comet are picked up by this outwelling magnetic field, are swept backwards and therefore forms a structure known as the plasma tail. The plasma tails of comets have a clearly blue color in photographs. The blue color originates from singly ionized carbon monoxide, that only absorbs and re-emits the blue light of the Sun. However, the most common gaseous species in the coma in terms of number is atomic hydrogen and hydroxyle (a radical consisting of a hydrogen atom and an oxygen atom). These are the photodissociation products of the water molecule, and form when water is smashed to pieces by the ultraviolet radiation. The solar radiation that is absorbed and re-emitted by these species cannot be seen by the human eye, but can be detected with ultraviolet detectors on spacecraft.

Comet tails can become huge. In some cases, they stretch over distances larger than that between the Sun and Earth, i.e., more than 150 million kilometers. When a bright comet with such tails passes Earth, it gives rise to a spectacular show. Historical sources speak of comets that were bright enough to be seen in full daylight, and comets have been seen with tails so long that they stretched across the sky, from one horizon to the opposite one.

Why are comets important from a scientific point of view?

One of the most fascinating problems of astrophysics is to understand our Solar System. When did it form, and how did it look like when it was very young? How did it evolve and why does it look the way it does today? What events led to the formation of an environment that was suitable for the emergence of life (i.e., our planet)? Will Earth remain to be an environment suitable for life, or are there processes in the Solar System that threaten our survival?

Some more specific questions we would like to answer are the following. What was the chemical composition of the Solar Nebula, i.e., the could of gas and dust from which the Solar System formed? How did dust grains form out of the cooling hot gas? How did the properties of the Solar Nebula change with distance from the Sun, and to what degree did material from different parts of the Solar Nebula mix? Why and when did planetesimals start to form, that later grew to embryos and eventually to planets? What was the internal structure and physical properties of these planetesimals?

To answer this type of questions today, 4.6 billion years after the Solar System formed, is not easy. The Solar System has changed beyond recognition during its lifetime and there are not many things from its earliest history left to study. Among all the bodies in the Solar System, comets appear to be the ones that have changed the least. Comets look more or less the same as when they formed 4.6 billion years ago, which makes them unique. If we want to learn about the earliest epochs of the Solar System, the study of comets is extremely important.

What makes us think that comets are primordial and rather unaltered bodies? Firstly, due to their sizes. Comets are too small to have experienced a high level of geologic activity. Basically, their content of radioactive material has been too small to generate the heat that is necessary to drive such activity. Secondly, due to their low heat conductivity. For active comets, the solar heat is strong enough to erode the very surface by sublimation. However, the high porosity of comets means that they conduct heat very poorly, which means that the solar heat does not penetrate very far. Ice at rather shallow depths are therefore probably completely pristine. Thirdly, it is not likely that comets have experienced substantial alterations due to collisions. The reason is that the number of objects in the scattered disk is rather low, which means that they collide rarely with each other.

The best evidence that comets have not experienced substantial heating or other forms of alteration, and therefore contain more or less unchanged Solar Nebula material, is that they still are so rich in highly volatile species like carbon monoxide. Therefore we can learn about the chemical and physical properties of the Solar Nebula by studying comets from ground or by the aid of spacecraft. By studying the cometary grains and the internal structure of nuclei, we learn about the earliest stages of planetary formation. By studying comets up close, we can therefore learn about the very earliest stages in the history of our own planet.

Another fascinating thing about comets is their high content of organic materials and water. Without organics and water on the young Earth, life would never have formed. The question is to what extent carbon and water in the biosphere was a natural component of the material from which the Earth formed, and how much that was brought here subsequently. For example, we know that Earth formed through the mergers of planetesimals and embryos during a period of time that lasted for 50-150 million years, starting 4.6 billion years ago. But we do not know how much water that could be found at the surface of Earth at that time, or what types of organic species that were available.

Subsequently, about 0.6 billion years after the formation of Earth, the number of large impacts increased dramatically during an epoch known as the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB). The LHB was most likely caused by a fundamental change of the giant planet orbits, from an original rather compact configuration close to the Sun, to the distant and well-separated orbits we see today. During this process, thousands of asteroids and comets were sent towards the inner parts of the Solar System, where they collided with Earth and the other terrestrial planets. The large impact structures seen on the Moon today were formed during the LHB. It is reasonable that a large amount of organic substances and water was brought to Earth during this event. We also know that the first evidence of life on Earth comes from the time right after the LHB. The question is therefore – how important was the water and organic compounds that comets brought to Earth during the LHB for the emergence of life that followed? Would life have emerged also without these cometary impacts, or did they bring vital components not present previously?

The fact is that large objects still impact on Earth now and then (typically a few hundred of thousands years pass between large impacts). Along with super volcanos, such impacts are the most violent natural disasters we have on Earth. The effects on Earth’s climate will be global if the impacting object is about a kilometer in diameter or larger.

If the object impact takes place on land, enormous amounts of dust is launched into the atmosphere, furthermore, wildfires are ignited that may spread over entire continents. What follows is a so called atomic winter, when the dust and ash in the atmosphere prevents the sunlight from reaching the surface of Earth. Our planet then becomes very cold, plants can no longer survive, which also causes a massive extinction of animal life. If the impact occurs at sea, there is in addition a huge tsunami with waves reaching tens or hundreds of meters that can flood vast areas. It is believed that the cause of the extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago was a large impact at the Yucatan peninsula in Mexico.

The risk of impacts is yet another reason for studying comets. How many comets are there, what orbits do they have, and do any of them threaten Earth? How large are the comets, what masses do they have, and what would happen if they entered Earths atmosphere? How does the effects of an impact depend on the physical properties of the nucleus?

Comet research is a rather young science. Normally we consider 1950 as the year when the modern comet astronomy was born. This is the year when Fred Whipple for the first time made an accurate description of the properties of comet nuclei, and when Jan Oort discovered the distant reservoir of comets that bears his name. Another important era began in 1986 with the first spacecraft to visit Comet 1P/Halley, e.g., Giotto. These were followed by other spacecraft in 2001 (Deep Space 1 to Comet 19P/Borrelly), in 2004 (Stardust to Comet 81P/Wild 2), in 2005 (Deep Impact to Comet 9P/Tempel 1), and in 2010 (EPOXI to Comet 103P/Hartley 2). Every new spacecraft to a comet has made fascinating discoveries. A new era in the exploration of comets starts in 2014 when the European Space Agency (ESA) spacecraft Rosetta arrives at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Rosetta will not only fly past the comet, as has been the case with previous spacecraft, it will go into orbit around the nucleus, and even send a lander to the nucleus surface. Rosetta will undoubtedly revolutionize our understanding of the oldest members of the Solar System – the mysterious comets.